Wichtiger Hinweis: Ayaat ulQuran müssen im Kontext im Quran und mit Tafsir studiert werden.
10.39. "Nein! Vielmehr erklären sie das für Lüge, wovon sie kein umfassendes Wissen haben, und schon bevor seine Deutung zu ihnen gekommen ist. So haben es auch diejenigen, die vor ihnen waren, für Lüge erklärt. Schau, wie das Ende der Ungerechten war!
48.4. He it is Who sent down peace of reassurance into the hearts of the believers that they might add faith unto their faith. Allah ' s are the hosts of the heavens and the earth, and Allah is ever Knower, Wise (Pickthall)
48.4. Er ist es, der die Gottesruhe in die Herzen der Gläubigen herabsandte, damit sie Glauben zu ihrem Glauben hinzufügen, und Allahs sind die Heerscharen der Himmel und der Erde, und Allah ist wissend, weise, (Ahmad v. Denffer)
48.4. Er ist es, der die innere Ruhe in die Herzen der Gläubigen herabgesandt hat, damit sie in ihrem Glauben noch an Glauben zunehmen. Und Allah gehören die Heerscharen der Himmel und der Erde. Und Allah ist Allwissend und Allweise. (Bubenheim)
48.4. Er ist es, Der innere Ruhe (Sakîna) in die Herzen der Gläubigen legte, damit sie noch mehr Glauben gewinnen. Gott gehören die Heerscharen der Himmel und der Erde. Gottes Wissen und Weisheit sind unermesslich. (Azhar)
48.4. ER ist Derjenige, Der Herzensruhe in die Herzen der Mumin hinabsandte, damit sie mehr Iman zu ihrem Iman gewinnen. Und ALLAH gehören die Gehilfen der Himmel und der Erde. Und ALLAH ist immer allwissend, allweise. (Zaidan)
48.4. Er ist es, der die sakiena den Gläubigen ins Herz herabgesandt hat, damit sie sich in ihrem Glauben noch mehr bestärken lassen würden. Allah (allein) hat die Heerscharen von Himmel und Erde (zu seiner Verfügung). Er weiß Bescheid und ist weise. (Paret)
48.4. Er ist es, Der die Ruhe in die Herzen der Gläubigen niedersandte, damit sie ihrem Glauben Glauben hinzufügen - und Allahs sind die Heerscharen der Himmel und der Erde, und Allah ist Allwissend, Allweise , (Rasul)
48.5. That He may bring the believing men and the believing women into Gardens underneath which rivers flow, wherein they will abide, and may remit from them their evil deeds. That, in the sight of Allah, is the supreme triumph (Pickthall)
48.5. Damit Er die gläubigen Männer und die gläubigen Frauen in Gärten hineingehen läßt, unter denen Gewässer fließen, ewig sind sie dort, und Er von ihnen ihre Schlechtigkeiten wegnimmt, und das ist bei Allah gewaltiger Gewinn. (Ahmad v. Denffer)
48.5. (Dies,) damit Er die gläubigen Männer und die gläubigen Frauen in Gärten eingehen lasse, durcheilt von Bächen - ewig darin zu bleiben -, und ihnen ihre bösen Taten tilge; das ist bei Allah ein großartiger Erfolg. (Bubenheim)
48.5. So wird Er die gläubigen Männer und Frauen in Paradiesgärten bringen, unterhalb derer Flüsse fließen. Darin werden sie ewig verweilen. Er tilgt ihre ?beltaten. Das ist ein großer Erfolg, der ihnen bei Gott zusteht. (Azhar)
48.5. ER wird doch die Mumin-Männer und die Mumin-Frauen in Dschannat eintreten lassen, die von Flüssen durchflossen sind, als Ewige darin, und ihnen ihre gottmißfälligen Taten tilgen. Und dies ist bei ALLAH stets ein gewaltiger Erfolg. (Zaidan)
48.5. Er möchte eben die gläubigen Männer und Frauen (dereinst) in Gärten eingehen lassen, in deren Niederungen Bäche fließen, und in denen sie (ewig) weilen werden, und er möchte ihnen ihre schlechten Taten tilgen. Das ist ein großes Glück (fauzan `azieman) (dessen sie) bei Allah (teilhaftig werden). (Paret)
48.5. auf daß Er die gläubigen Männer und die gläubigen Frauen einführe in Gärten, durch die Bäche fließen, um ewig darin zu verweilen, und auf daß Er ihre Missetaten von Ihnen nehme - und das ist vor Allah ein großer Gewinn - ; (Rasul)
48.6. And may punish the hypocritical men and the hypocritical women, and the idolatrous men and the idolatrous women, who think an evil thought concerning Allah. For them is the evil turn of fortune, and Allah is wroth against them and hath cursed them, and hath made ready for them hell, a hapless journey ' s end. (Pickthall)
48.6. Und Er straft die heuchlerischen Männer und die heuchlerischen Frauen und die mitgöttergebenden Männer und die mitgöttergebenden Frauen, die über Allah das Schlechte meinen, auf ihnen ist die Wende des Schlechten, und Allah ist erzürnt über sie, und Er hat sie verflucht, und Er hat für sie die Hölle vorbereitet, und wie schlecht ist das Ende. (Ahmad v. Denffer)
48.6. Und (damit) Er die Heuchler und Heuchlerinnen und die Götzendiener und Götzendienerinnen strafe, die von Allah die böse Erwartung hegen. Gegen sie wird die böse Schicksalswendung sein. Allah zürnt ihnen, verflucht sie und bereitet ihnen die Hölle - (wie) böse ist der Ausgang! (Bubenheim)
48.6. Er wird die Heuchler und die Heuchlerinnen und die Götzendiener und die Götzendienerinnen, die schlimme Mutmaßungen über Gott anstellen, qualvoll bestrafen. Sie allein wird das schlimme Unheil treffen. Gott zürnt ihnen, verflucht sie und hält die Hölle für sie bereit. Welch schlimmes Ende! (Azhar)
48.6. Und ER wird die Munafiq-Männer und die Munafiq-Frauen und die Muschrik- Männer und die Muschrik-Frauen, die über ALLAH das schlechte Denken denken. Vernichtendes treffe sie! Und ALLAH zürnte ihnen, verfluchte sie und bereitete für sie Dschahannam. Und erbärmlich ist sie als Werden. (Zaidan)
48.6. Und er möchte die Heuchler und die Heuchlerinnen und die Götzendiener und Götzendienerinnen, die über Allah schlimme Mutmaßungen anstellen, bestrafen. Über sie (selber) wird eine schlimme Schicksalswendung kommen. Allah ist zornig über sie und hat sie verflucht, und er hat die Hölle für sie bereit - ein schlimmes Ende! (Paret)
48.6. und (auf daß Er) die Heuchler und Heuchlerinnen und die Götzendiener und Götzendienerinnen bestrafe, die üble Gedanken über Allah hegen. Auf solche (Sünder) wird ein böses Unheil niederfallen; und Allah ist zornig auf sie; und Er hat sie verflucht und Dschahannam für sie bereitet. Und das ist eine üble Bestimmung. (Rasul)
48.7. Allah ' s are the hosts of the heavens and the earth, and Allah is ever Mighty, Wise. (Pickthall)
48.7. Und Allahs sind die Heerscharen der Himmel und der Erde, und Allah ist mächtig, weise. (Ahmad v. Denffer)
48.7. Und Allah gehören die Heerscharen der Himmel und der Erde. Und Allah ist Allmächtig und Allweise. (Bubenheim)
48.7. Gott gehören die Heerscharen der Himmel und der Erde. Gottes Macht und Weisheit sind unermesslich. (Azhar)
48.7. Und ALLAH gehören die Gehilfen der Himmel und der Erde. Und ALLAH ist immer allwürdig, allweise. (Zaidan)
48.7. Allah (allein) hat die Heerscharen von Himmel und Erde (zu seiner Verfügung). Er ist mächtig und weise. (Paret)
48.7. Und Allahs sind die Heerscharen der Himmel und der Erde; und Allah ist Erhaben, Allweise. (Rasul)
Tafsir von Maududi für die Ayaat 1 bis 7
O Prophet, We have indeed granted you a manifest victory ( 1 ) so that Allah may pardon you your former and latter faults, ( 2 ) and may perfect His blessing upon you ( 3 ) and show you the right way, ( 4 ) and bestow on _ you a mighty help ( 5 ) . He it is Who sent down tranquillity into the hearts of the believers ( 6 ) so that they may havc another Faith added to their Faith. ( 7 ) To Allah belong the hosts of the heavens and the earth, and He is All-Knowing, All Wise. ( 8 ) (He has done this) so that He may admit the believing mcn and the believing women ( 9 ) into the Gardens underneath which canals flow, there to live for ever, and may remove their evils from them. ( 10 ) -This is indeed the greatest success in the sight of Allah.-And that He may punish the hypocritical men and women and the mushrik mcn and women, who entertain evil thoughts about Allah. ( 11 ) They themselves have been encircled by the evil. ( 12 ) They came under the wrath of Allah and He cursed them and prepared for them Hell, which is a most evil abode. To Allah belong the hosts of the heavens and the earth, and He is All-Mighty, All-Wise. ( 13 )
Desc No: 1 When after the treaty of Hudaibiyah this good news of the victory was announced, .the people wondered as to how the treaty could be called a victory. The Muslims did believe in this Divine Revelation as true on the basis of their Faith, but no one could understand what aspect of the victory it had. On hearing this verse, Hadrat 'Umar asked: "Is it a victory, O Messenger of Allah?" The Holy Prophet replied: "Yes." (lbn Jarir) Another Companion came before the Holy Prophet and he also put the same question; whereupon the Holy Prophet replied: "By Him in Whose hand is the life of Muhammad, this indeed is a victory." (Musnad Ahmad, Abu Da'ud) On arriving at Madinah still another person said to his companions: "What sort of a victory is it? We were debarred from the House of Allah; our sacrificial camels also could not go to their right places; the Holy Messenger of Allah had to halt at Hudaibiyah, and in consequence of this truce two of our oppressed brothers (Abu Jandal and Abu Basir) were handed over to their oppressors." When this thing reached the Holy Prophet, he said; "A vary wrong thing has been uttered: it indeed is a great victory. You reached the very home of the polytheists, and they had to persuade you to go back by soliciting you to perform 'Umrah the following year; they themselves expressed the desire to suspend hostilities and have peace with you, whereas-their malice and enmity against you is too well-known. Allah has granted you the upper hand over them. Have you forgotten the day when you were fleeing from Uhud and I was calling you back from behind? Have you forgotten the day when the enemy had descended on us from every side in the Battle of the Trench and the hearts were coming up to the throats?" (Baihaqi on the authority of 'Urwah bin Zubair) . But not long after this the truce's being a victory began to become manifest, and everyone realized that the triumph of Islam had begun with the treaty of Hudaibiyah. Almost one and the same thing has been related from Hadrat 'Abdullah bin Mas'ud, Hadrat Jabir bin `Abdullah and Hadrat Bara' bin 'Azib. They are reported to have said: "The people look upon the Conquest of Makkah as the victory, but we regard the truce of Hudaibiyah as the real victory." (Bukhari, Muslim, Musnad Ahmad, Ibn Jarir).
Desc No: 2 If the context in which this sentence occurs is kept in view, one will certainly feel that the faults referred to here imply those shortcomings and weaknesses that had remained in the struggle that the Muslims had been making for the success and victory of Islam, under the leadership of the Holy Prophet, for the past nineteen years or so. These shortcomings are not known to any one because the intellect is absolutely helpless to find out any weakness in that struggle. But according to the highest standards of perfection in the sight of Allah there had remained some such weakness in it because of which the Muslims could not attain a decisive victory so soon over the pagans of Arabia. What Allah means to say is this: ¦If you had carried on your struggle along with those weaknesses, it would have taken you much longer to subdue Arabia, but We have overlooked all those weaknesses and shortcomings and compensated for them only through Our grace, and opened for you at Hudaibiyah the door to victory and conquest which you could not have achieved only by your ordinary endeavors" . Here, this thing also should be understood well that for the weaknesses that might occur and remain in the struggle and endeavor that a group might be making for an object, the leader and guide of the group only is addressed. This does not mean that the weaknesses are the leader's personal weaknesses. Those are, in fact, the weaknesses of the struggle that the group is making as a whole; but the address is made to the leader to tell him that his work suffers from such and such a weakness. However, as the address is directed to the Holy Prophet and declared that Allah has forgiven him all his former and latter faults, the general words also give this meaning that Allah pardoned all the shortcomings (which were the shortcomings in view of his high position) of His Holy Messenger. That is why when the Companions saw that he took extraordinary pains over his worship, they would say: `Why do you subject yourself to such hardships when all your former and latter errors and shortcomings have been pardoned ?" the Holy Prophet would reply: "Should I not behave as a grateful servant ?" (Ahmad, Bukhari, Muslim, Abu Da'ud).
Desc No: 3 "Perfection of his blessings" implies that the Muslims should become wholly free to live their lives in accordance with Islamic civilization, Islamic law and commandments, secure from every fear, every resistance and every external interference, and they should also be blessed with the power that they may uphold Allah's Word throughout the world. Dominance of disbelief and wickedness which may be a hindrance in the way of Allah's worship and an obstacle in the struggle in propagating Allah's Word, is the greatest calamity for the believers; the Qur'an calls it 'fitnah " (mischief). Delivered and freed from this calamity when they arc able to achieve an abode of Islam (dare/-Islam) in which the Divine Religion is enforced in its entirety, and along with that they are also provided with the means and resources by which they may establish faith and righteousness on Allah's earth in place of disbelief and wickedness, this would be the perfection of Allah's blessing on them. As this blessing was achieved by the Muslims only through the Holy Prophet, Allah addressed only him and said: "We willed to complete Our blessing on you; therefore we have granted this victory to you."
Desc No: 4 'The right way": the way to conquest and success. In other words, it implies that by causing the treaty to be concluded at Hudaibiyah Allah paved the way for and inspired the Holy Prophet with the plan by which he could subdue all the forces that were resisting Islam.
Desc No: 5 Another translation can be: "Bestow on you an unprecedented victory," for the word aziz in the original may mean mighty as well as unprecedented and unparalleled. According to the first meaning, the sentence means: "By means of this treaty Allah has helped you in a way as to make your enemies helpless"; and according to the second, it means: "Seldom has this novel method ever been adopted to help somebody, that a thing which apparently is a mere peace treaty, and that too a treaty concluded from a weak position, would turn into a decisive victory."
Desc No: 6 "Sakinat" in Arabic is calmness and tranquillity and peace of mind. Here Allah calls its being sent into the hearts of the believers an important factor in the victory that Islam and the Muslims achieved at Hudaibiyah. From a study of the conditions of the tuns one comes to know what kind of a Sakinat it was that was sent down into the hearts of the Muslims during that period and how it became a source of victory. If at the time when the Holy Prophet expressed his intention to go for 'Umrah to Makkah, the Muslims had become terror-stricken and started behaving like the hypocrites as if they were going into the very jaws of death, or if at the time when they heard the news on the way that the disbelieving Quraish were coming out in great strength to fight them, they had been alarmed as to how they would face the enemy un-armed, and thus become panic-stricken, obviously no benefits would have resulted from Hudaibiyah at all. Then, if at the time when at Hudaibiyah the disbelievers had stopped the Muslims from going any further, and when they had tried to provoke them by launching against them repeated sudden attacks, and when the rumor of Hadrat 'Uthman's martyrdom had spread, and when Abu Jandal had appeared on the scene as the very image of oppression and persecution, the Muslims had actually become provoked and broken the discipline that the Holy Prophet had instilled in them, the result would have been disastrous. Above all, if at the time when the Holy Prophet was going to conclude the treaty on the conditions which were un-acceptable to the entire party of the Muslims, the Muslims had happened to disobey him, the great victory of Hudaibiyah would have turned into a humiliating defeat. Thus, it was all because of Allah's bounty that on all these critical moments the Muslims were blessed with full peace of mind with regard to the leadership and guidance of the Holy Prophet, the truth of Islam and the truthfulness of their mission. This is why they decided with a cool mind that they would face and accept whatever hardships they would encounter in the way of Allah; that is why they remained safe from fear, confusion, provocation and despair; that is why perfect discipline continues to prevail in the camp; and that is why, in spite of being deeply grieved at the conditions of peace, they submitted to the decision taken by the Holy Prophet. This was the sakinat that Allah had sent down into the hearts of the Muslims, and it was all because of this that the dangerous step of undertaking a journey for performing 'Umrah became the prelude to a unique victory.
Desc No: 7 That is, "One Faith they already had before they set out on this expedition; they attained the additional Faith when they remained steadfast on the way of sincerity, piety and obedience in every trial that they faced in connection with the expedition. " This verse is one of those verses which show that Faith is not a static state which is incapable of growth, but it develops as well as decays and deteriorates. After embracing Islam till death the believer at every step in his life continues to be confronted with such tests and trials in which he has to take a decision whether in following the Divine Religion he is prepared to sacrifice his life, his wealth, his sentiments, desires, time, comforts and interests or not. If at the time of every such trial he adopts the way of sacrifice, his Faith progresses and develops, and if he turns away his Faith decays and deteriorates till a time may also come when the initial state of the Faith with which he had entered Islam is even endangered to be lost and destroyed. (For further explanation. see E.N. 2 of Surah AI-Anfal and E.N. 38 of AI-Ahzab).
Desc No: 8 It means this: Allah has such hosts by which He can destroy and exterminate the disbelievers completely whenever He wills, but He has deliberately and by wisdom only placed this responsibility on the believers that they should enter a conflict with the disbelievers and struggle to make the Religion of Allah prevail and prosper in the world. In this way alone does a door to the enhancement of their ranks and successes in the Hereafter open as is being indicated in the following verse'.
Desc No: 9 In the Qur'an generally mention of the rewards for the believers is made collectively and separate mention is not made of the rewards for the men and the women But here, since the general mention of giving the rewards could cause the doubt that this reward may perhaps be only meant for the men. Allah has made a separate mention of the believing women, saying that they too would be equal partners in this reward with the believing men. The reason is obvious. Those God-fearing women who encouraged their husbands, sons, brothers and fathers to proceed on the dangerous journey instead of stopping them from it and discouraging them by crying and wailing, who looked after their houses, their properties, their honor and children in their absence faithfully, who did not even feel the alarm lest at the sudden departure of 1,400 of the Companions the disbelievers and hypocrites of the surrounding areas would attack the city, should certainly have become equal partners with their men in the reward of Jihad although they stayed behind in their homes.
Desc No: 10 That is, that He may pardon whatever errors they might have committed because of human weaknesses, remove every trace and mark of the errors from them before admitting them into Paradise so that they may enter Paradise absolutely free from every evil that may cause them embarrassment.
Desc No: 11 The hypocrites living in the suburbs of Madinah were thinking, as has been stated in verse 12 below, that the Holy Prophet and his Companions would not return alive from that journey. As for the polytheists of Makkah and their pagan companions, they were thinking that they had successfully put to rout the Holy Prophet and his Companions by preventing them from performing `Umrah. In fact, whatever these two groups had thought they had this misunderstanding about Allah that He would not help His Messenger and in the conflict between the Truth and falsehood would allow falsehood to defeat and frustrate the Truth.
Desc No: 12 That is, "They were encompassed by the same evil fate which they wanted to avoid and against which they had devised all those plans, and their same plans caused the evil fate to be hastened."
Desc No: 13 Here the theme of verse 4 has been reiterated for another object. There, the object was to state that Allah instead of employing His supernatural hosts to fight the disbelievers had employed the believers for it only because He willed to favor them. Here, the theme has been repeated to say that in order to punish the one whom Allah wills to punish He can employ whichever of His countless hosts He likes for the purpose; no one has the power to avert His punishment by his own plans. "
48.9. That ye (mankind) may believe in Allah and His messenger, and may honor Him, and may revere Him, and may glorify Him at early dawn and at the close of day. (Pickthall)
48.9. Damit ihr an Allah glaubt, und an Seinen Gesandten, und ihr zu ihm haltet, und Ihn achtet und Ihn preist, frühmorgens und bei Tagesende. (Ahmad v. Denffer)
48.9. damit ihr an Allah und Seinen Gesandten glaubt, ihm beisteht und ihn hochachtet und (damit ihr) Ihn preist morgens und abends. (Bubenheim)
48.9. damit ihr an Gott und Seinen Gesandten glaubt, Gottes Sache zum Sieg verhelft und Ihn ehrt und lobpreist am Morgen und am Abend. (Azhar)
48.9. damit ihr den Iman an ALLAH und Seinen Gesandten verinnerlicht, Seinem (Din) beisteht, Ihn verherrlicht und Ihn lobpreist nach Sonnenaufgang und vor Sonnenuntergang. (Zaidan)
48.9. damit ihr an Allah und seinen Gesandten glaubt, ihm helft (tu `azziruuhu), ihn hochachtet und ihn morgens und abends preist. (Paret)
48.9. auf daß ihr an Allah und Seinen Gesandten glauben und ihm helfen und ihn ehren und Ihn (Allah) morgens und abends preisen möget. (Rasul)
Tafsir von Maududi für die Ayaat 8 bis 9
O Prophet. We havc sent you as a witness, ( 14 ) as a bearer of good news and as a warner, ( 15 ) so that you, O people, may believe in Allah and His Messenger, and may help him (i.e.. the Messenger) and honour him, and glorify Allah morning and evening. ( 16 )
Desc No: 14 Shah Waliyullah has translated shahid as "a bearer of witness to the truth", and other translators translate it as "a bearer of the witness". The word shahadat comprehends both these meanings. For explanation, sec E.N. 82 of Surah Al-Ahzab.
Desc No: 15 For explanation, see E.N. 33 of Surah Al-AhzaB.
Desc No: 16 According to some commentators the verse means: ".... and help the Messenger, and honour him, and glorify Allah morning and evening", and according to others: "... and help Allah, and honour Him and glorify Him morning and evening. " Glorifying Allah morning and evening does not mean glorifying Him only in the morning and the evening but at all times. It is just like saying about something that it is well-known in the east and the west when one actually means to say that it is well-known everywhere in the world. "
48.10. Lo! those who swear allegiance unto thee (Muhammad), swear allegiance only unto Allah. The Hand of Allah is above their hands. So whosoever breaketh his oath, breaketh it only to his soul ' s hurt; while whosoever keepeth his covenant with Allah, on him will He bestow immense reward. (Pickthall)
48.10. Diejenigen, die mit dir den Treueid abschließen, sie schließen ja mit Allah den Treueid ab, die Hand Allahs ist über ihren Händen, und wer wortbrüchig ist, der ist wortbrüchig gegen sich selber, und wer hält, was er mit Allah als Abmachung getroffen hat, so wird Er ihm gewaltige Belohnung geben. (Ahmad v. Denffer)
48.10. Gewiß, diejenigen, die dir den Treueid leisten, leisten (in Wirklichkeit) nur Allah den Treueid; Allahs Hand ist über ihren Händen. Wer nun (sein Wort) bricht, bricht es nur zu seinem eigenen Nachteil; wer aber das einhält, wozu er sich Allah gegenüber verpflichtet hat, dem wird Er großartigen Lohn geben. (Bubenheim)
48.10. Diejenigen, die dir Treue schwören, schwören Gott Treue. Gottes Macht steht dir über ihre Kraft hinaus zu. Wer sein Wort bricht, schadet nur sich selbst. Wer seinen Treueschwur Gott gegenüber hält, dem wird Er großen Lohn gewähren. (Azhar)
48.10. Gewiß, diejenigen, die dir gegenüber Bai'a leisten, leisten eigentlich Bai'a ALLAH gegenüber. ALLAH bekräftigt ihren Handschlag. Wer (ihn) bricht, der bricht (ihn) nur gegen sich selbst, und wer das erfüllt, wozu er sich ALLAH gegenüber verpflichtet hat, dem wird ER eine riesengroße Belohnung gewähren. (Zaidan)
48.10. Diejenigen, die dir huldigen, huldigen (eigentlich nicht dir, sondern) Allah. Allahs Hand ist (bei ihrem Handschlag mit dir) über ihrer Hand. Wenn nun einer (eine Verpflichtung, die er eingegangen hat) bricht, tut er das zu seinem eigenen Nachteil. Wenn aber einer eine Verpflichtung, die er Allah gegenüber eingegangen hat, erfüllt, wird dieser ihm (dereinst) gewaltigen Lohn geben. (Paret)
48.10. Wahrlich, diejenigen, die dir huldigen - sie huldigen in der Tat nur Allah; die Hand Allahs ist über ihren Händen. Und wer daher den Eid bricht, bricht ihn zu seinem eigenen Schaden; dem aber, der das hält, wozu er sich Allah gegenüber verpflichtet hat, wird Er einen gewaltigen Lohn geben. (Rasul)
Tafsir von Maududi für die Ayaat 10 bis 10
O Prophet, those who were swearing allegiance to you, ( 17 ) were indeed swearing allegiance to Allah. Allah's hand was over their hands. ( 18 ) Now whosoever breaks this pledge breaks it at his own peril, and whosoever keeps his pledge that he has made with Allah, ( 19 ) Allah will soon grant him a great reward.
Desc No: 17 The reference is to the pledge that the Holy Prophet took from his Companions at Hudaibiyah at the rumor that Hadrat `Uthman had been killed at Makkah. According to some traditions it was a pledge unto death, and according to others it was an undertaking that they would not nut away from the battlefield. The first thing has been reported from Hadrat Salamah bin Akwa' and the second from Hadrat Ibn `Umar, Jabir bin `Abdullah and Ma'qil bin Yasar. The purport of both is the same. The Companions had pledged allegiance on the Holy Prophet's hand with the express object that if the news of Hadrat `Uthman's martyrdom proved to be true, they would settle the matter with the Quraish there and then even if they were cut to pieces in the clash. As on this occasion it was not yet certain whether Hadrat `Uthman actually had been killed or was still living, the Holy Prophet placed one of his own hands on the other and pledged allegiance on his behalf, and thus bestowed a unique honour on Hadrat `Uthman in that he made Hadrat 'Uthman a partner in the pledge by making his own sacred hand represent the hand of Hadrat `Uthman. The Holy Prophet's taking the pledge of allegiance on his behalf necessarily meant that he had full confidence that if Hadrat `Uthman had been present he would certainly have pledged the allegiance.
Desc No: 18 That is, the hand on which the Muslims were swearing allegiance was not the hand of the Prophet's person but of Allah's representative, and this allegiance was in fact being sworn to Allah through His Messenger. .
Desc No: 19 Here, instead of `alaih-illah the words used in the original are alaihullah, which is a departure from the general rule of Arabic. `Allama Alusi has given two reasons for the unusual use of the vowel points here. First, the object on this special occasion is to express the great glory, eminence and majesty of the Being to Whom the pledge was being sworn for which alaih-u is more appropriate than `alaih-i; second, the ha in alaih-i actually represents howe; therefore, adhering here to the vowel points of the original goes well with the theme of the allegiance.