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4.15. Und diejenigen von euren Frauen, die das Abscheuliche begehen, - bringt vier Zeugen von euch gegen sie. Wenn sie (es) bezeugen, dann haltet sie im Haus fest, bis der Tod sie abberuft oder Allah ihnen einen (Aus)weg schafft.

[ anNisa:15 ]


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Mehr Übersetzungen

Tafsir auf arabisch:
Ibn Kathir Tabari Jalalain Qurtubi

Tafsir auf englisch:
Ibn Kathir (NEU!) Jalalain ibn Abbas



33.56. Inna Allaha wamala-ikatahu yusalluunaAAala alnnabiyyi ya ayyuha alladhiinaamanuu salluu AAalayhi wasallimuu tasliiman

33.56. Lo! Allah and His angels shower blessings on the Prophet. O ye who believe! Ask blessings on him and salute him with a worthy salutation. (Pickthall)

33.56. Allah und Seine Engel segnen ja den Propheten, ihr, die glauben, segnet ihn und gebt ihm den Friedensgruß als Begrüßung. (Ahmad v. Denffer)

33.56. Gewiß, Allah und Seine Engel sprechen den Segen über den Propheten. O die ihr glaubt, sprecht den Segen über ihn und grüßt ihn mit gehörigem Gruß. (Bubenheim)

33.56. Gott nimmt den Propheten in Seine Barmherzigkeit auf und erweist ihm Seine Huld, und Seine Engel sprechen den Segen über ihn. Ihr Gläubigen, sprecht den Segen über ihn und grüsst ihn, wie es sich ziemt! (Azhar)

33.56. Gewiß, ALLAH gewährt dem Propheten Gnade und die Engel erbitten sie für ihn. Ihr, die den Iman verinnerlicht habt! Macht für ihn Salah und begrüsst (ihn mit) einer Salam-Begrüßung! (Zaidan)

33.56. Allah und seine Engel sprechen den Segen über den Propheten, (yusalluuna `alaa n-nabieyi). Ihr Gläubigen! Sprecht (auch ihr) den Segen über ihn und grüßt (ihn), wie es sich gehört (wa-sallimuu taslieman)! (Paret)

33.56. Wahrlich, Allah sendet Segnungen auf den Propheten, und Seine Engel bitten darum für ihn. O ihr, die ihr glaubt, bittet (auch) ihr für ihn und wünscht ihm Frieden in aller Ehrerbietung. (Rasul)

Tafsir von Maududi für die Ayaat 56 bis 56

Indeed Allah and His angels send blessings on the Prophet. ( 106 ) O you who have believed, you also should ask and send blessings and peace on him. ( 107 )

Desc No: 106
"Allah's sending His blessings on His Prophet" means this: Allah is very kind to His Prophet: He praises him, blesses his work, exalts his name, and showers His mercies on him. " `Blessings of the angels" means: "They love the Prophet most dearly and pray to Allah to bless him with the highest ranks, cause his religion and Shari'ah to flourish and exalt him to the laudable position. " One can clearly see from the context. why this thing has been said here. This was the rime when the enemies of Islam were making all sorts of false allegations against the Holy Prophet in order to satisfy their jealousy on the success of Faith, By sullying him they thought they would destroy his moralinfluence through which Islam and the Muslims were gaining more and more ground every day. Such were the conditions when Allah sent down this verse, as if warn the people: "However Bard the disbelievers and the hypocrites and the polytheists might try to vilify and slander My Prophet with a view to frustrating his mission, they are bound to suffer disgrace and humiliation in the end, for I am kind to him, and the angels, who are administering the entire universe, are his supporters and admirers. His enemies Cannot gain anything by their condemnation of him because I am exalting his name and My angels are adoring him constantly. They cannot harm him by their mean machinations when My mercies and blessings are with him, and My angels pray for hlm day and night to the effect: "O Lord of the worlds, raise Muhammad to even higher ranks and make his Religion flourish and prosper." 

Desc No: 107
In other words, it means this: "O people, who have found the right path through Muhammad, the Messenger of Allah, you should recognize his the worth and be grateful to him for his great favours to you. You were lost in the darkness of ignorance: He afforded you the light of knowledge: you had become morally bankrupt: he raised you high on the moral level so that the people now feel envious of you; you had sunk to barbarism and savagery: he adorned you with the most refined haman civilization. The disbelievers everywhere have turned his enemies only because he has done you these favours; otherwise personally he has not done any harm to anyone. Therefore, the inevitable demand of your gratitude to him is that you should regard him with an equal, or even greater love than the malice and grudge these people display against him; that you should show a greater attachment to him than the hatred these people show towards him; that you should praise and adore him even more fervently than they condemn him; that you should wish him well even more heartily than they wish him iII, and pray for him just as the angels do day and night, saying: "O Lord of the worlds: Just as Your Prophet has done us countless and endless favours, so do You also show him endless and limitless mercy: raise him to the highest ranks in the world and bless him with the greatest nearness to Yourself in the hereafter.'
In this verse, Muslims have been commanded two things: (1) Sallu alaihi; and (2) sallimu taslima. The word Salat when used with the associating panicle 'ala gives three meanings: (1) To be inclined to some body, to attend to him with love, and to bend over him; (2) to praise somebody; and (3) to pray for somebody. Obviously, when the word is used in regard to Allah, it cannot be in the third meaning, for it is absolutely inconceivable that Allah should pray to someone else; it can only be used in the first two meanings. But when this word is used for the servants, whether angels or men, it will be in all the three meanings. It will contain the sense of love as well as praise and prayer for mercy. Therefore, the meaning of giving the Command of sallu'alaihi to the believers for the Holy Prophet is: 'Be attached to him, praise and adore him and pray for him."
The word salam also ' as two meanings: (1) To be secure from every kind of affliction and fault and d efect; and (2) to be at peace and refrain from opposing the other person. Therefore, one meaning of sallimu taslima in regard to the Holy Prophet is: "You should pray for his well-being and security," and another meaning is: "Cooperate with him with all your heart and mind; refrain from opposing him and obey him most faithfully and sincerely."
When this Command was sent down, several of the Companions said to the Holy Prophet, "O Messenger of Allah, you have taught us the method of pronouncing salam (i.e.. of saying as-salamu 'alaika ayyuhannabiyyu wa rahmatullahi wa barakat-u-hu in the Prayer, and as-salamu alaika ya Rasul-Allah as a greeting, but what is the method of sending Salat on you ?" In response to this, the methods of pronouncing Salat and darud that the Holy Prophet taught to many people on different occasions are as follows:
Ka'b bin'Ujrah: Allahumma salli ala Muhammad-in wa ala al-i Muhammad-in kama sallaita ala Ibrahima wa ala al-i Ibrahima irmaka Hamidum-Majid, wa barik 'ala Muhammad-in wa ala al-i Muhammad-in kama barakta 'ala Ibrahima wa 'ala al-i Ibrahima innaka Hamid-um-Majid. This darud with a little difference in wording has been reported by Bukhari, Muslim, Abu Da'ud, Tirmidhi, Nasa'i, Ibn Majah, Imam Ahmad, Ibn Abi Shaibah, 'Abdur Razzaq, Ibn Abi Hatim and Ibn Jarir on the authority of Hadrat Ka'b bin 'Ujrah.
Ibn 'Abbas: From him also the same darud as given above has been reported with a slight difference. (Ibn Jarir).
Abu Humaid Sa'idi:Allahumma salli ala Muhammad-in wa azwaji-hi wa dhurriyati-hi kama sallaita ala Ibrahima wa 'ala al-i Ibrhima wa barik ala Muhammad-in wa azwaji-hi wa dhurriyat-hi kama barakta 'ala al-i Ibrahima irmaka Hamid-um-Majid. (Malik, Ahmad, Bukhari, Muslim, Nasa'i, Abu Da'ud, Ibn Majah).
Abu Mas'ud Badri: Allahumma salli ala Muhammad-in wa ala al-i Muhammad-in kama sallaita 'ala Ibrahima wa 'ala al-i Ibrahima wa barik ala Muhammad-in wa ala al-i Muhammad-in kama barakta 'ala Ibrahima fil- alamin innaka Hamid-um-Majid (Malik, Muslim, Abu Da'ud, Tirmidhi, Nasa'i Ahmad, Ibn Jarir, Ibn Habban, Hakim).
Abu Sa' id Khudri: Allahumma salli ala Muhammad-in abdika wa rasuli-ka kama sallaita 'ala Ibrahima wa barik 'ala Mahammad-in wa 'ala al-i Muhammad-in kama ba rakta ala Ibrahim. (Ahmad, Bukhari, Nasa'i Ibn Majah).
Buraidah al-Khuza'i: Allahumm-aj'al Salataka wa rahmataka wa barakati-ka ala Muhammad-in wa ala al-i Muhammad-in kama Ja 'altaha ala Ibrahima innaka Hamid-um-Majid. (Ahmad, 'Abd bin Humaid, Ibn Marduyah).
Abu Hurairah: Allahumma salli ala Muhammad-in wa ala al-i Muhammad-in wa barik ala Muhammad-in wa ala al-i Muhammad-in kama sallaita wa barakta 'ala Ibrahima wa 'ala al-i Ibrahim fil- `alamin innaka Hammid-um-Majid. (Nasai).
Talhah: Allahumma salli ala Muhammad-in wa ala al-i Muhammad-in kama sallaita `ala Ibrahima innaka Hamid-um-Majid wa barik ala Muhammad-in wa ala al-i Muhammad-in kama barakta ala Ibrahima innaka Hamid-um-Majid. (Ibn Jarir).
All these daruds agree in meaning despite the difference in wording. A few points concerning them should be understood clearly:
First, in all these the Holy Prophet tells the Muslims that the best way of sending darud and Salat on him is that they should pray to Allah, saying, "O God: send darud on Muhanunad. " Ignorant people who do not possess full understanding of the meaning inunediately raise the objection: 'How strange that Allah commands us to send darud on His Prophet, but we, in return, implore Allah that He should send it." The fact, however, is that the Holy Prophet has instructed the people, as if to say, 'You cannot do full justice to sending of darud and Salat on me even if you want to. Therefore, pray only to Allah to bless me with Salat. " Evidently, the Muslims cannot raise the ranks of the Holy Prophet, Allah only can raise them; the Muslims cannot repay the Holy Prophet for his favours and kindness, Allah only can adequately reward him for this; the Muslims cannot attain any success in exalting the Holy Prophet's name and promoting the cause of religion unless Allah favours them with His help and succour. So much so that the Holy Prophet's love can be impressed in our hearts only by Allah's help; otherwise Satan can turn us away from him by every kind of evil suggestion sand suspicions. May Allah protect us from this! Therefore, there is no other way of doing full justice to sending of darud and salat on the Holy Prophet than that we should supplicate Allah to send salat on him. The person who says: Allahumma salli 'ala Muhammad-in, in fact, admits his helplessness before Allah, and says: "O God: it is not in my power to send salat on Your Prophet as it should be sent. I. therefore, implore You to send it on my behalf and take from me whatever service You will in this regard."
Secondly, the Holy Prophet did not want to have this prayer reserved for onlv himself bat included his followers and his wives and offsprings also. The meaning of the wives and offspring is obvious. As for the word al it dces not merely denote the people of the Holy Prophet's household, but it applies to all those people who follow him and adopt his way. Lexically, there is a difference between the words al and ahl. By the al of a person arc understood all those people who are his companions, helpers and followers, whether they are related to him or not, and his ahl are those who are related to him, whether or not they are his companions and followers. The Qur'an has used the word al Fir aun at fourteen places but nowhere has it been used to mean the people of Pharaoh's household only; everywhere it implies all those who sided with him in the conflict against the Prophet Moses. (For example, see Al-Baqarah: 49-50, AI-i-'Imran: 11, AI-A'raf; 130, Al-Mu'min: 46). Thus, from al-Muhammad is excluded every such person who is not on the way of Muhammad (upon whom be Allah's peace and blessings), whether he be a member of his household, and in it is included every such person, who is following in his footsteps, whether he is not even distantly related to him by blood. However, those members of the Prophet's household who arc related to him by blood and are also his followers are most worthy to be regarded as al-Muhammad.
Thirdly, the same thing found in all the daruds taught by the Holy Prophet is that he may be blessed with the same kindness with which Abraham and the followers of Abraham have been blessed. The people have found it difficult to understand this. The scholars have given different interpretations of it but none of them is appealing. In my opinion the correct interpretation is this (though the real knowledge is with Allah): Allah blessed the Prophet Abraham in particular with something with which He has blessed no one else in the world, and it is this: AlI those human beings who regard the Prophethood and the Revelation and the Book as the source of guidance are agreed on the leadership of the Prophet Abraham, whether they are Muslims or Christians or Jews. Therefore, what the Holy Prophet means to say is this: "O Allah, just as You have made the Prophet Abraham the refuge of the followers of all the Prophets, so You make me also the refuge, so that no one who is a believer in Prophethood, may remain deprived of the grace of believing in my Prophethood."
That it is an Islamic practice to send darud on the Holy Prophet, that it is commendable to pronounce it when the Holy Prophet's name is mentioned, that it is a Sunnah of the Prophet to recite it in the Prayer in particular, is agreed upon by all the scholars. There is also a consensus that it is obligatory to pronounce the darud on the Holy Prophet at least once in a lifetime, because Allah has clearly commanded it, but apart from this there are differences among the scholars regarding it.
Imam Shafe' i holds the view that it is obligatory to recite salat on the Prophet during tashahhud in the final sitting of the Prayer, for without it the Prayer would be void. Hadrat Ibn Mas'ud, Abu-Mas'ud Ansari, Ibn 'Umar and Jabir bin 'Abdullah from among the Companions, Sha'bi, Imam Muhammad bin Baqir, Muhammad bin Ka'b al-Qurzi and Muqatil bin Hayyan from among the immediate followers of the Companions, and Ishaq bin Rahwayah from among the jurists also held the same opinion, and Imam Ahmad bin Hanbal also had adopted the same in the end.
Imam Abu Hanifah, Imam Malik and the majority of the scholars hold that the pronouncing of the Salat is obligatory only once in a life time. It is just like the Kalimah: whoever affirmed the divinity of Allah and the Prophethood of the Messenger of Allah once in a lifetime carried out his duty. Likewise, the one who pronounced the darud and salat once in his lifetime would be deemed to have done his duty of pronouncing the darud on the Holy Prophet. After it, it is neither obligatory ( fend) to recite the Kalimah nor the darud.
Another group holds that it is absolutely wajib to recite it in the Prayer but not necessarily in the tashahhud.
Still another group holds the view that it is wajib to pronounce the darrid in every supplication. Some others say that it is wajib to pronounce it whenever the Holy Prophet's name is mentioned, and according to another group recitation of the darrid is wajib only once in an assembly or sitting no matter how often the name of the Holy Prophet is mentioned during it. ,
These differences only pertain to the darud's being obligatory in status or otherwise. As for its merit and excellence, its being conducive to high spiritual rewards and its being a great righteous act, there is complete unanimity among the Ummah. No one who is a believer in any degree can have any different opinion about it. The darud is the natural supplication of the heart of every Muslim, who realizes that the Holy Prophet Muhammad (upon Whom be Allah's peace) is the Ummah's greatest benefactor after Allah. The greater one's appreciation of Islam and the Faith, the greater will one be appreciative of the favours of the Holy Prophet himself; and the greater one's appreciation of the favours of the Holy Prophet, the more often will he pronounce the darud and salat on him. Thus, in fact, the frequency with which a person pronounces the darud is the measure which shows the depth of his relationship with the Holy Prophet's Religion and the extent of his appreciation of the blessing of the Faith. On this very basis the Holy Prophet has said: "The angels send darud on him who sends darud on me, as long as he does so." (Ahmad, Ibn Majah). "He who sends darud on me once, Allah sends darud on him ten times over." (Muslim) "The one who sends darud on me most often will deserve to remain close to me on the Day of Resurrection" (Tirmidhi). ¦Niggardly is the person who dces not send darud on me when I am mentioned before him." (Tirmidhi)
As to whether it is permissible to use the words Allahumma salli ala soand so, or sallallahu alaihi wa sallam, or similar other words for others than the Holy Prophet, it is disputed. One group of the scholars of whom Qadi `Iyad is most prominent holds it as absolutely permissible. Their argument is this: Allah Himself has used the word salat in respect of those who were not prophets at several places in the Qur'an, e.g. in AI-Baqarah; 157, At-Taubah: 103, Al-Ahzab:43. Similarly, the Holy Prophet also prayed for those who were not' prophets using the word sale) on several occasions. For example, he prayed for a Companion, thus: Allahumma salli 'ala al Abi Aufa; on the request of Hadrat Jabir bin 'Abdullah's wife, he said: Sallallahu alaihi wa 'ala zaujiki. Then concerning those who came with the Zakat money, he would say: Allahumma salli 'alaihim. Praying for Hadrat Sa'd bin 'Ubadah he said: Allahumma aj'al salataka wa rahmataka ala al-i Sa'd bin 'Ubadah. And about the soul of the believer the Holy Prophet gave the news that the angels prayed for him, thus: Sallallahu 'alaika wa ala jasadika. However, the majority of the Muslim scholars opine that it was correct for Allah and His Messenger but not so for the Ummah. They say that it has become a convention with the Muslims to use salat-o-salam exclusively for the Prophets. Therefore, it should not be used for those who are not prophets. On this very basis Hadrat 'Umar bin 'Abdul 'Aziz once wrote to one of his governors, saying: "I hear that some preachers have started using the word salat in respect of their patrons and supporters in the manner of salat 'alas-Nabi. As soon as you receive this letter, stop them from this practice and command them to use Salat exclusively for the Prophets and remain content with the prayer for the other Muslims." (Ruh al-Ma'eni). Most scholars also hold that using the words sallallahu alaihi wa sallam for any other Prophet than the Holy Prophet is not correct.  "



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