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12.2. Wir haben es als einen arabischen Qur´an hinabgesandt, auf daß ihr begreifen möget.

[ Yusuf:2 ]


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Tafsir auf arabisch:
Ibn Kathir Tabari Jalalain Qurtubi

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Ibn Kathir (NEU!) Jalalain ibn Abbas



28.23. Walamma warada maa madyanawadschada AAalayhi ommatan mina alnnasi yasquunawawadschada min duunihimu imraatayni tadhuudani qalama khatbukuma qalata lanasqii hatta yusdira alrriAAaowaabuuna schaykhun kabiirun

28.23. And when he came unto the water of Midian he found there a whole tribe of men, watering. And he found apart from them two women keeping, back (their flocks). He said: What aileth you? The two said: We cannot give (our flocks) to drink till the shepherds return from the water; and our father is a very old man. (Pickthall)

28.23. Und als er zum Wasser von Madjan gelangte, fand er dort eine Gemeinschaft von Menschen, sie tränkten Vieh, und er fand über sie hinaus zwei Frauen, beide drängten ihr Vieh ab. Er sagte: "Was ist euer beider Anliegen?" Die beiden sagten: "Wir tränken das Vieh nicht, bis die Hirten ihr Vieh herausgebracht haben, und unser Vater ist ein alter betagter Mann." (Ahmad v. Denffer)

28.23. Als er nun zum Wasser von Madyan kam, fand er dort eine (ganze) Gemeinschaft von Menschen, die (ihr Vieh) tränkten. Und er fand außer ihnen zwei Frauen, die (ihre Tiere) fernhielten. Er sagte: "Was ist mit euch beiden?" Sie sagten: "Wir tränken (unsere Tiere) nicht, bis die Hirten (ihr Vieh) weggetrieben haben. Und unser Vater ist ein hochbetagter Greis." (Bubenheim)

28.23. Und als er an der Wasserstelle von Madyan angekommen war, fand er viele Menschen, die ihr Vieh tränkten. Ein wenig entfernt davon sah er zwei Frauen, die ihre Herde zurückhielten. Da sagte er: "Was ist mit euch?" Sie sagten: "Wir können unsere Herde nicht tränken und müssen warten, bis die Hirten ihre Tiere zurückgetrieben haben. Unser Vater ist ein sehr alter Mann." (Azhar)

28.23. Und als er beim Wasser von Madyan ankam, fand er da eine Umma von Menschen, die (ihre Tiere) tränkten, auch fand er da unter ihnen zwei Frauen, die (ihre Tiere) zurückhielten. Er sagte: „Was ist euer Bestreben?“ Beide sagten: „Wir tränken nicht, bis die Hirten zurückgezogen sind. Und unser Vater ist ein Greis.“ (Zaidan)

28.23. Als er dann zum Wasser von Madyan herunterkam, fand er dort eine (große) Schar (umma) von Menschen, die (ihre Herdentiere) tränkten, und vor ihnen zwei Frauen die (ihre Tiere von den anderen Tieren und dem Wasser) zurückhielten. Er sagte: "Was ist mit euch beiden?" Sie sagten: "Wir können (unsere Tiere) nicht tränken, solange nicht die Hirten (ihre Herden vom Wasser) zurückgebracht haben. Und unser Vater ist ein alter Greis (und nicht mehr imstande, uns zu helfen)." (Paret)

28.23. Als er zum Wasser von Madyan kam, fand er dort eine Schar von Leuten, die (ihr Vieh) tränkten. Und neben ihnen fand er zwei Frauen, die (ihr Vieh) zurückhielten. Er sagte: "Was ist mit euch?" Sie sagten: "Wir können (unser Vieh) nicht eher tränken, als bis die Hirten (ihre Herden) fortgetrieben haben, und unser Vater ist ein hochbetagter Greis." (Rasul)

Tafsir von Maududi für die Ayaat 22 bis 23

(Leaving Egypt) when Moses set his direction towards Madyan ( 31 ) he said "I expect that my Lord will guide me to the right path. " ( 32 ) And when he arrived at the well of Madyan ( 33 ) he saw a multitude of people watering their animals and apart from them two women keeping their animals back. Moses asked the women "What is your worry?" They said "We cannot water our animals until these shepherds have taken away their animals; and our father is a very old man. " ( 34 )

Desc No: 31
Both the Bible and the Qur'an agree that after leaving Egypt the Prophet Moses had gone to live in Madyan (Midian). But the Talmud tells the absurd story that Moses fled to Ethiopia and became a great favourite with the king there. After the king's death the people made Moses their king and leader and gave him the widow of the king for a wife, but during the 40 years of his reign there he never had intercourse with his negro wife. Then the queen of Ethiopia, who was a wife to Moses in name only, said to the people, "Why should this stranger continue to rule over you '? He has never worshipped the gods of Ethiopia." At this the people of Ethiopia deposed him and made him many rich presents and dismissed him with great honours. Then he came to Midian and met with the events being mentioned below. At this time he was 67 years old.
A clear proof of this story's being absurd is that according to it Assyria (northern Iraq) in those days was under Ethiopia, and the Prophet Moses and the Ethiopian king, his predecessor, had led military campaigns to crush the Assyrian revolts. Now anybody who has a little acquaintance with the history and geography can have a look at the map and see things for himself. Assyria could be under Ethiopian domination and have been attacked by the Ethiopian army only in case Egypt and Palestine and Syria had been under its subjugation, or the whole of Arabia under its sway, or, at least the Ethiopian navy so powerful as to have conquered 'Iraq across the Indian ocean and the Persian Gulf. History, however, does not support the view that the Ethiopians ever held sway over these countries, or their naval force was ever so powerful. This indicates how imperfect was the Israelites' knowledge of their own history, and how the Qur'an corrects their errors and presents thetrue facts in their pure form. Nevertheless, the Christian and the Jewish orientalists are never ashamed of asserting that the Qur'an has plagiarized the Israelite traditions for its narratives. 

Desc No: 32
The right path: "The path that may take me to Midian safely." It should be borne in mind that Midian in those days was outside Pharaoh's empire. Egypt did not have control over the whole of the Sinai Peninsula but only on its western and southern parts. The Midianites who inhabited the eastern and western coasts of the Gulf of 'Agabah were free from Egyptian influence and authority. That is why the Prophet Moses had headed for Midian after leaving Egypt, because that was the nearest free and inhabited land. But to reach Midian he had to pass through Egyptian territories; avoiding the Egyptian police and military posts on the way. That is why he prayed to God to put him on the right track which should take him to Midian safely. 

Desc No: 33
This place where the Prophet Moses had arrived was situated, according to the Arab tradition, on the western coast of the Gulf of 'Agabah, a few miles to the north of Magna . Today it is called Al-Bid, and is a small habitation. I visited this place in December, 1952, when I was travelling from Tabuk to 'Agabah. The natives told me that, as they had heard from their elders, Midian was situated there. From Josephus to Burton, all ancient and modern explorers and geographers, have generally confirmedthis very place as the location of ancient Midian. Nearby there is the place now called Magha`irShu'aib or Magharat Shu'aib. There are some Thamudic monuments here. A mile or so away, There are some ancient ruins, where we saw two dry wells, one of which was said to be the well where the Prophet Moses (peace be upon him) had watered the goats. The same has been related by Abu Fida' (d. 732 A.H.) in Taqvim al-Buldan and Yaqut in Mu jam al-Buldan, on the authority of Abu Zaid Ansari; (d. 216 A.H.), that the natives point to the same well there as the well of Moses. This indicates that the tradition is being handed down since centuries among the people, and therefore, it can be confidently asserted that this is the same place which has been mentioned in the Qur'an. See some photographs of this on the opposite page. 

Desc No: 34
T=hat is, "We are women: it is not possible for us to water our animals by resisting these shepherds. Our father is too old to perform this rigorous duty. There is no other male member in the house either. Therefore we, the womenfolk, have to come out to perform these chores, and until all the shepherds have watered their animals and left, we have to wait." This whole meaning was conveyed by the ladies in a brief sentence, which is indicative of their modesty. They did not want to have a lengthy conversation with a stranger, but at the same time, they did not to have a lengthy conversation with a stranger, but at the same time, they did not like that he should form a wrong impression about their family, thinking how lethargic were the manfoIk who sat back in their homes and sent the women to perform outdoor duties.
About the father of these ladies traditions that have become current among the Muslims are that he was the Prophet Shu`aib (peace be upon him), but the Qur'an makes no allusion to this, although Prophet Shu`aib is a prominent character of the Qur'an. If he were really the father of the ladies, it would have been clearly mentioned here. No doubt there are some traditions in which his name has been mentioned, but both 'Allama Ibn Jarir and Ibn Kathir concur that none of them has been authentically reported. That is why great commentators like Ibn `Abbas, Hasan Basri, Abu `Ubaidah and Said bin Jubair have relied on the Israelite traditions and mentioned the same names of this personage which appear in the Talmud. etc. Evidently, if the name of Shu'aib had actually been reported froth the Holy Prophet these scholars would not have mentioned any other name.
The Bible mentions him as Re'uel in one place and Jethro in another (Exod. 2: 16-18, 3: 1, 18: 5), and says that he was the priest of Midian. In the Talmudic literature he has been variously called as Re'uel, Jethro and Hobab. The present-day Jewish scholars are of the view that Jethro was a synonym for "his excellency' and his real name was Re'uel or Hobab. Similarly, they differ about the meaning of the word Kohen. Some regard it as a synonym of priest and others of prince.
According to the Talmud Re'uel used to visit Pharaoh from time to time before the birth of Prophet Moses, and pharaoh relied on his knowledge and good counsel and mature opinion. But when the royal council of Egypt started consultations for the subduing of the Israelites and it was decided that their male children be killed on their birth, he did his best to stop Pharaoh from enforcing this wrong decision, warned him of its evil consequences and counselled that if he found the Israelites unbearable, he should let them go to Canaan, the laud of their forefathers. These words of Re'ue angered Pharaoh, and he sent him in shame front his presence. Re'uel then left Egypt for his country. Midian, and settled there ever afterwards.
As to his religion it is commonly believed that, like the Prophet Moses, he was a follower of Prophet braham's Faith, for just as the Prophet Moses was a ' Descendant of Isaac, son of Abraham (peace be upon bath of them), so was he a descendant of Midian, son of Abraham. Probably due to this relationship he tried to prevent Pharaoh from persecuting the Israelites and angered him. Nisaburi, the commentator, writes on the authority of Hasan Basri: "He was a Muslim: he had embraced the religion of the Prophet Shu`aib." The Talmud says that he publicly condemned the idol-worship of the Midianites as a folly. Due to this the people of Midian had turned his opponents.  



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