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20.129. Wenn es nicht ein schon früher ergangenes Wort von deinem Herrn und eine festgesetzte Frist gäbe, wäre (die sofortige Strafe) fürwahr unabwendbar.

[ Ta Ha:129 ]

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Tafsir auf arabisch:
Ibn Kathir Tabari Jalalain Qurtubi

Tafsir auf englisch:
Ibn Kathir (NEU!) Jalalain ibn Abbas

6.153. Waanna hatha siratiimustaqiiman faittabiAAuuhu wala tattabiAAuu alssubulafatafarraqa bikum AAan sabiilihi dhalikum wassakumbihi laAAallakum tattaquuna

6.153. And (He commandeth you, saying): This is My straight path, so follow it Follow not other ways, lest ye be parted from His way: This hath He ordained for you, that ye may ward off (evil). (Pickthall)

6.153. Und: Dies ist Mein richtiger Weg, also folgt ihm, und folgt nicht den anderen Pfaden, so daß ihr von Seinem Pfad getrennt werdet. Dies hat Allah euch angeordnet, damit ihr vielleicht gottesfürchtig seid. (Ahmad v. Denffer)

6.153. Und (Er hat euch anbefohlen:) Dies ist Mein Weg, ein gerader. So folgt ihm! Und folgt nicht den (anderen) Wegen, damit sie euch nicht von Seinem Weg auseinanderführen! Dies hat Er euch anbefohlen, auf daß ihr gottesfürchtig werden möget! (Bubenheim)

6.153. Mein Weg, wie ich ihn euch aufgezeigt habe, ist gerade, und ihr sollt nur ihm folgen. Betretet nicht die falschen Pfade, sonst werdet ihr von Gottes Weg abkommen und in zerstrittene Gruppen auseinanderfallen! Das sind Gottes Gebote und Verbote, die Er euch vorschreibt, auf dass ihr gottesfürchtig werdet. (Azhar)

6.153. Und das ist mein Weg - ein Gerader, so folgt ihm und folgt nicht den (anderen) Wegen, damit sie euch von Seinem Weg nicht abbringen. Dies ist, was ER euch geboten hat, damit ihr Taqwa gemäß handelt. (Zaidan)

6.153. Und (er läßt euch sagen:) Dies ist mein Weg (siraat). (Er ist) gerade. Folgt ihm! Und folgt nicht den (verschiedenen anderen) Wegen (subul), daß sie sich (nicht) mit euch teilen (und euch) von seinem Wege (sabiel) (wegführen)! Dies (zaalikum) hat Allah euch verordnet. Vielleicht würdet ihr gottesfürchtig sein. (Paret)

6.153. Und dies ist Mein gerader Weg. So folgt ihm; und folgt nicht den (verschiedenen) Wegen, damit sie euch nicht weitab von Seinem Weg führen. Das ist es, was Er euch gebietet, auf daß ihr gottesfürchtig sein möget. (Rasul)

Tafsir von Maududi für die Ayaat 151 bis 153

O Muhammad, say to them, "Come, I will recite what limits your Lord has set for you." ( 127 ) (He has enjoined:) (1) That you should not set up anything as a partner with Him, ( 128 ) (2) and you should treat your parents kindly, ( 129 ) (3) and you should not kill your children for fear of poverty, for We provide sustenance for you and will provide sustenance for them also, (4) and you should not go near indecent things ( 130 ) whether they be open or hidden, (5) and you should not kill any living being whom Allah has forbidden to kill except by right. ( 131 ) These are the things which He has enjoined on you: it may be that you use your common sense. And He has enjoined:(6) that you should not go near the property of an orphan except in the best way,' ( 132 ) until he reaches his maturity.(7) and you should use a full measure and a just balance. We charge one only with that much responsibility that one can bear, ( 133 ) (8) and whatever you say should be just, even if it is concerning your own relatives,(9) and you should fulfil your covenant with Allah. ( 134 ) Allah has enjoined these things on you so that you may follow the admonition.(10) And Allah also enjoins: "This way alone is My Right Way; therefore you should follow this Way and should not follow other ways lest they should lead you astray from His Way. ( 135 ) This is what Allah has enjoined on you so that you may avoid crooked ways.

Desc No: 127
That is, "The limits set by your Lord are not those which you have imposed on yourselves, but they are the following which Allah has set for the regulation of human life and which have always been the fundamental basis of all Divine Laws." (Please compare these precepts with those contained in Exodus chapter 20). 

Desc No: 128
One is guilty of shirk if: (a) one sets up another besides Allah as god, or (b) one attributes to another any of those attributes that naturally and exclusively belong to Allah, or (c) one sets up a partner with Allah in His powers, or (d) in His rights.
According to (a), all those creeds which set up partners with Allah in the essence of His Godhead shall be shirk, e.g., the creed of Trinity of the Christians, the creed of musrhik Arabs to believe in the angels to be daughters of God and to attribute "Godhead" to their gods and goddesses and the members of the royal families.
According to (b), all those, who believe that someone other than Allah also possesses one or some or all of the attributes which exclusively belong to Allah, shall be guilty of shirk. For instance, it will be shirk if one believes that someone knows all about everything including the "unseen" or hears everything or is completely free from each and every defect and weakness, and is infallible like Allah.
According to (c), one shall be guilty of shirk, if one believes that someone else besides Allah is able to wield any one or all of those powers that exclusively belong to Him. For instance, one shall be committing shirk, if one believes that someone else besides Allah can, in a supernatural way, benefit or harm or fulfil heeds or help or protect or defend, or hear prayers, or make or mar destinies, or set the limits of lawful or unlawful, proper or improper, or prescribe laws (shar a) for human life. These shall be shirk, for all these things are the exclusive characteristics of Godhead.
It shall be shirk under (d) if one surrenders to another any or all of those rights to which Allah alone is entitled. For instance, Allah alone has the right that man should stand with bound hands, bow and prostrate before Him, or he should make vows and give offerings in His name alone or make sacrifices as a mark of gratitude in acknowledgement of His greatness; He alone has the right that He should be invoked to ward off troubles etc. Likewise, Allah alone is entitled to all forms of worship, devotion and glory and He alone has the right to be loved more than anyone or anything else and all other affections should be sacrificed for His love. He alone should be feared so that one would not dare displease or disobey Him openly and secretly. He alone has the right to be obeyed unconditionally and unreservedly; and His Guidance alone should be made the sole standard of judging right from wrong and none else should be obeyed except in accordance with the obedience to Allah. If ever one of these rights is surrendered to someone other than Allah, it will be setting that one as a partner with Him, whether that one is given the title of god or not.  

Desc No: 129
"Kind treatment" includes respect and honour, obedience and desire to please and serve parents etc. , This right of the parents has been stated in the Qur'an at several places immediately after the rights of Allah. This is a clear proof that this right of the parents is only next to the right of Allah and has priority over all human rights.  

Desc No: 130
The Arabic word fawahish applies to all kinds of impure acts, whose obscenity is absolutely obvious. The Qur'an declares adultery, sodomy, nudism, calumny, marriage with father's wife as "indecencies." Besides these, theft, drinking and beggary have also been included in the list of indecencies in the Traditions. Likewise, all other obscene acts are also indecencies and the Divine Commandment demands that such acts should neither be committed openly nor secretly.  

Desc No: 131
This is the declaration of the sanctity of human life by Allah Who has made it inviolable as a basic principle. As regards its destruction "by right", the Qur'an allows this in three cases and the Holy Prophet added two more to these. The Qur'an makes it lawful to take the life of the one:
(1) who is proved guilty of the intentional murder of another person.
(2) who opposes Islam and obstructs its establishment so as to leave no other alternative than to fight with him,
(3) who spreads disorder within the Islamic territory or exerts to overthrow the established Islamic government.
Besides these, the Holy Prophet has made it lawful to .take the life of the one:
(4) who, in spite of being married, is proved guilty of adultery,
(5) who becomes an apostate and deserts the Islamic Community.
These five are the only cases in which it becomes lawful to take human life and there is no other case in which it becomes lawful to take human life and there is no other case besides these in which human life may be taken, be it that of a Muslim, or of a dhimmi, or of an unbeliever. 

Desc No: 132
"The best way" will be the one which is based on selflessness, good intentions and the welfare of the concerned orphan, and which is not objectionable in the sight of God or man.  

Desc No: 133
"You shall use full measure and a just balance,¦ is a fundamental principle of the Divine Law: Allah has added, "We charge can bear," to assure people that whoever tries his very best to be just and right in measuring, weighing and carrying out other trade transactions, will be absolved from his responsibility and will not be taken to account, if in spite of his best efforts, there happens to be an unintentional error. 

Desc No: 134
"Covenant with Allah" is: (i) The solemn agreement which man makes with Allah, (i!) the solemn pledge which he makes with another man in the name of Allah, and (iii) the natural compact that comes into force as soon as one is born in the human society on Allah's earth.
The first two kinds of covenants are intentional and optional, but the third one is a moral and natural obligation. Though man has no option in the choice of the third compact, yet it is as binding as the first two and should be honoured as 'much. This is because Allah has given him life with extraordinary physical and mental faculties and furnished the earth for his habitation and provided nourishment, and limitless resources etc., for him. Naturally all this entails some rights of Allah on him. Likewise it entails some, rights of the mother who gives birth to and nourishes him and of the father who brings him up and of the society that affords him many kinds of facilities and opportunities. All these rights become, by their very nature, obligatory on him in varying degrees. It is true that this "Covenant" of man with God and society has not been written in any statute book, nevertheless it has been ingrained by Nature in each and every particle of his body, which itself owes its very existence to this Covenant. A reference to this has been made in AI-Baqarah, ti: 27: "....who break Allah's Covenant after ratifying it: who cut asunder what Allah has ordered to be joined and who produce chaos on the earth." It has again been mentioned in AI-A'raf, VII: 172 to this effect: At the time of the creation of Adam, Allah brought forth all his would-be descendants up to the Last Day, from the loins of mankind, and trade them stand witnesses to the Covenant that He is their Lord.  

Desc No: 135
"..... you should follow this way because this is the Right Way." This "Natural Covenant" demands that tnan should follow the Way shown by Allah, because any deviation from it into the paths of rebellion or independence or in the worship of another than Allah will be the first violation against that Covenant, and will mislead one into other violations one after the other. Besides, no tnan can fulfil the obligations of this most delicate, vast and intricate Covenant unless one accepts Divine Guidance and follows it in every aspect of life. "...... you should not follow other ways" because they will turn you away from His Right Way which is the only Way which leads to His nearness, pleasure and approval. Moreover, when the people deviate from His High Way, each man has to make his own choice out of the hundreds of other ways. Thus the people are scattered in all directions and there is bewilderment, confusion and disorder among all mankind and this becomes a hindrance in the way of its real progress and development (Please see also E.N. 35, Al-Ma'idah).   "

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